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Scientists have been able to shed light on important neural circuitry involved in the prey capture behavior exhibited by young zebrafish. The findings show that neurons in the retina of the eye already filter out prey objects from other environmental sign

Zebrafish Retina Wired for Prey

December 17, 2014 | by Max-Planck-Gesellschaft | Comments

Scientists have been able to shed light on important neural circuitry involved in the prey capture behavior exhibited by young zebrafish. The findings show that neurons in the retina of the eye already filter out prey objects from other environmental signals.

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Llama Antibodies Neutralize HIV/AIDS

December 19, 2014 10:16 am | Comments

Most vaccines work by inducing an immune response characterized by neutralizing antibodies against the respective pathogen. A new study reports that a combination of antibodies from llamas can neutralize a wide range of circulating HIV viruses.

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Primate Research Leads to Treatments for Visual Dysfunction, Artificial Intelligence

December 19, 2014 9:58 am | by Anne Trafton | Comments

Until now, no computer model has been able to match the primate brain at visual object recognition during a brief glance. However, a new study has found that one of the latest generation of these so-called “deep neural networks” matches the primate brain. This improved understanding of how the primate brain works could lead to better artificial intelligence and, someday, new ways to repair visual dysfunction.

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Ibuprofen Extends Lifespan of Yeast, Worms, and Fruit Flies

December 19, 2014 9:39 am | Comments

Ibuprofen, a common over-the-counter drug used to relieve pain and fever, could hold the keys to a longer healthier life. The study showed that regular doses of ibuprofen extended the lifespan of yeast, worms and fruit flies an average of 15%. 

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Fruit Fly Lab to Study Space's Impact on Infection

December 18, 2014 11:44 am | by Gianine M. Figliozzi | Comments

The most advanced system to date for studying fruit flies in space, NASA’s Fruit Fly Lab, is making its debut aboard the International Space Station. The Fruit Fly Lab-01 mission, planned to launch to the station in December aboard SpaceX's fifth commercial resupply services (CRS) mission, is the first of a series of fruit fly investigations NASA plans to conduct.

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Mouse Study Finds Stem Cells Faulty in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

December 18, 2014 9:50 am | by Krista Conger | Comments

Like human patients, mice with a form of Duchenne muscular dystrophy undergo progressive muscle degeneration and accumulate connective tissue as they age. Now, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found that the fault may lie at least partly in the stem cells that surround the muscle fibers.

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Multiple Allergic Reactions Traced To Single Protein

December 18, 2014 9:36 am | Comments

Through research in mice, Johns Hopkins and University of Alberta researchers have identified a single protein as the root of painful and dangerous allergic reactions to a range of medications and other substances. If a new drug can be found that targets the problematic protein, it could help smooth treatment for patients with conditions ranging from prostate cancer to diabetes to HIV.

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Whether an odor is pleasant or disgusting to an organism is not just a matter of taste. Often, an organism’s survival depends on its ability to make just such a discrimination. However, odor sources can also be signs of lethal hazards. Scientists have now

Lateral Horn in Fruit Fly Brain Distinguishes Good Smells from Bad

December 17, 2014 11:56 am | by Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology | Comments

Whether an odor is pleasant or disgusting to an organism is not just a matter of taste. Often, an organism’s survival depends on its ability to make just such a discrimination. However, odor sources can also be signs of lethal hazards. Scientists have now found that in fruit flies, the quality and intensity of odors can be mapped in the so-called lateral horn.

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Extra vitamin E protected older mice from a bacterial infection that commonly causes pneumonia. Microbiologists and nutrition researchers report that the extra vitamin E helped regulate the mice’s immune system. The findings show promise for studies inves

Vitamin E Protects Older Mice from Getting Pneumonia

December 17, 2014 11:33 am | by Tufts University | Comments

Extra vitamin E protected older mice from a bacterial infection that commonly causes pneumonia. Microbiologists and nutrition researchers report that the extra vitamin E helped regulate the mice’s immune system. The findings show promise for studies investigating the effects of vitamin E and infection in humans.

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Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems Aquires PR Aqua

December 17, 2014 10:58 am | Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc. | Comments

Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc. has acquired PR Aqua Supplies Ltd., a leading aquaculture design and equipment provider based in Nanaimo, BC, Canada.                            

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Scientists have long known the p53 protein suppresses tumors. However, a recent animal study has uncovered a complicated relationship between p53 and another protein, Rbm38, highlighting how the body calibrates protein levels.

Complex Protein Interactions Govern Tumor Suppression, Aging

December 16, 2014 1:59 pm | by UC Davis Health System | Comments

Scientists have long known the p53 protein suppresses tumors. However, a recent animal study has uncovered a complicated relationship between p53 and another protein, Rbm38, highlighting how the body calibrates protein levels.       

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 An exceptionally sensitive toxicity test could make it possible to uncover more   dangerous side effects early in pharmaceutical development so that fewer   patients are given unsafe drugs.

'Darwinian' Test Uncovers Antidepressant’s Hidden Toxicity

December 16, 2014 1:41 pm | by University of Utah | Comments

An exceptionally sensitive toxicity test could make it possible to uncover more dangerous side effects early in pharmaceutical development so that fewer patients are given unsafe drugs.                   

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Researchers have developed the first large animal model of an inherited arrhythmic syndrome — an advance that will lead to a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms important in normal heart conduction and rhythm.

Genetically Engineered Pig Helps Study of Arrhythmias

December 16, 2014 1:29 pm | by NYU Langone Medical Center | Comments

Researchers have developed the first large animal model of an inherited arrhythmic syndrome — an advance that will lead to a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms important in normal heart conduction and rhythm.        

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Scientists have demonstrated a technique for “editing” the genome in sperm-  producing adult stem cells, a result with powerful potential for basic research   and for gene therapy.

'Genome Editing' Corrects Genetic Mutations in Mice

December 16, 2014 1:20 pm | by Indiana University | Comments

Scientists have demonstrated a technique for “editing” the genome in sperm-producing adult stem cells, a result with powerful potential for basic research and for gene therapy.                     

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The variety-induced overeating typical of holidays is known as the “smörgåsbord effect,” and was first identified in 1956 by the French physiologist Jacques Le Magnen. To study the effects of food flavors on appetite, Le Magnen made tiny feasts for rats.

How We Can Stuff Ourselves at Holiday Time

December 16, 2014 1:07 pm | by Christina Agapakis, Popular Science | Comments

The variety-induced overeating typical of holidays is known as the “smörgåsbord effect,” and was first identified in 1956 by the French physiologist Jacques Le Magnen. To study the effects of food flavors on appetite, Le Magnen made tiny feasts for rats.

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Researchers have used a microscopic worm (C. elegans) to identify a new path that could lead to drugs to slow aging and the chronic diseases that often accompany it — and might even lead to better cosmetics.

Worms Provide Model for Longevity

December 15, 2014 1:20 pm | by Joslin Diabetes Center | Comments

Researchers have used a microscopic worm (C. elegans) to identify a new path that could lead to drugs to slow aging and the chronic diseases that often accompany it — and might even lead to better cosmetics.            

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