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Probiotics Limit Fatigue, Depression in Mouse Model of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

August 4, 2015 | by Elizabeth Doughman, Editor-in-Chief | Comments

A new study in the Journal of Neuroscience found that a mouse model of liver inflammation fed probiotics showed fewer behavioral symptoms, including fatigue, depression, and social withdrawal. The researchers believe that this shows that probiotics may be an effective treatment for the behavioral symptoms of other chronic inflammatory diseases as well, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

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Researchers have designed a DNA-loaded nanoparticle that can pass through the mucus barrier covering conducting airways of lung tissue — proving the concept, they say, that therapeutic genes may one day be delivered directly to the lungs to the levels suf

Nanoparticles Breach Mucus Barrier in Lungs

August 4, 2015 11:44 am | by Johns Hopkins Medicine | Comments

Researchers have designed a DNA-loaded nanoparticle that can pass through the mucus barrier covering conducting airways of lung tissue — proving the concept, they say, that therapeutic genes may one day be delivered directly to the lungs to the levels sufficient to treat cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other life-threatening lung diseases.

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In a new study, investigators report that by identifying and mimicking important developmental cues, they have been able to drive cells to grow into muscle fibers, producing millimeter-long muscle fibers capable of contracting in a dish and multiplying in

Muscle Fibers Grown in Lab Offer New Muscular Dystrophy Model

August 3, 2015 1:41 pm | by Brigham and Women's Hospital | Comments

In a new study, investigators report that by identifying and mimicking important developmental cues, they have been able to drive cells to grow into muscle fibers, producing millimeter-long muscle fibers capable of contracting in a dish and multiplying in large numbers. This new method could offer a better model for studying muscle diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, and for testing out potential treatment options.

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Humans ignore visual input caused by our own eye movements. And now, researchers have   identified a similar process in flies, whose brains ignore visual input caused by their   own flight turns. This advance will allow researchers to better understand ho

Fly Brains Filter Out Visual Information Caused by Their Own Movements, Like Humans

August 3, 2015 1:24 pm | by Rockefeller University | Comments

Humans ignore visual input caused by our own eye movements. And now, researchers have identified a similar process in flies, whose brains ignore visual input caused by their own flight turns. This advance will allow researchers to better understand how ongoing behavior influences visual perception.

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A team of scientists has linked changes in the structure of a handful of central brain neurons to understanding how animals adjust to changing seasons. Its findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms vital to the regulation of our circadian syste

Neuronal Plasticity Plays a Role in Circadian Clock

August 3, 2015 1:03 pm | by New York University | Comments

A team of scientists has linked changes in the structure of a handful of central brain neurons to understanding how animals adjust to changing seasons. Its findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms vital to the regulation of our circadian system, or internal clock.

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New research shows promising progress in the use of anti-inflammatory cytokine for   treatment of type 1 diabetes. The study reveals that administration of interleukin-35   (a protein made by immune cells) to mice with type 1 diabetes, reverses or cures t

Anti-Inflammatory Shows Promise for Type 1 Diabetes Treatment in Mice

August 3, 2015 12:44 pm | by Uppsala University | Comments

New research shows promising progress in the use of anti-inflammatory cytokine for treatment of type 1 diabetes. The study reveals that administration of interleukin-35 (a protein made by immune cells) to mice with type 1 diabetes, reverses or cures the disease by maintaining a normal blood glucose level and the immune tolerance.

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Sleep Deprivation Negatively Affects the Reproductive Fitness of Fruit Flies

August 3, 2015 12:23 pm | by Elizabeth Doughman, Editor-in-Chief | Comments

Sleep deprivation reduces aggression and affects the reproductive fitness of fruit flies, according to new research published in eLife.

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Protein Prompts Healthy Egg-sperm Union in Mice

July 31, 2015 10:33 am | by Elizabeth Doughman, Editor-in-Chief | Comments

The protein RGS2 is vital for healthy egg-sperm union in mice, according to a new study from researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The protein is able to delay egg development in order to allow time for sperm to arrive and fertilization to occur.

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Immune Cells Located in Skin Prevent and Defend Against Parasite Infections

July 31, 2015 10:32 am | by Elizabeth Doughman, Editor-in-Chief | Comments

After infection with leishmaniasis, the skin retains a population of T cells that remember how to respond and fight previous infections, according to a new study from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. This is the first time that a group of T cells have been found to reside in a tissue in response to a parasite infection.

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Surprising Similarity in Fly and Mouse Motion Vision

July 31, 2015 10:31 am | Comments

At first glance, the eyes of mammals and those of insects do not seem to have much in common. However, a comparison of the neural circuits for detecting motion shows surprising parallels between flies and mice.

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New Pig Model Will Provide Insights into Early Detection, New Treatments of Cancers

July 30, 2015 5:31 pm | Comments

With many types of cancers, early detection offers the best hope for survival. However, research into new early-detection screenings, as well as possible interventional radiology and surgical treatments, has been hindered by the lack of a large animal model that would accurately reflect the types of cancers seen in human cells.

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Depression Starts as a Gut Feeling

July 30, 2015 9:49 am | by Amanda Boundris, McMaster University | Comments

Bacteria in your gut play an important role in inducing anxiety and depression, scientists from the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute at McMaster University have discovered. Their study, published today in Nature Communications, is the first to explore the role of intestinal microbiota in altered behavior that comes from early life stress.

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Where Memory is Encoded and Retrieved

July 30, 2015 9:40 am | Comments

Are the same regions and even the same cells of the brain area called hippocampus involved in encoding and retrieving memories or are different areas of this structure engaged? This question has kept neuroscientists busy for a long time. Researchers at the Mercator Research Group "Structure of Memory" at RUB have now found out that the same brain cells exhibit activity in both processes.

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Experimental MERS Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Studies

July 30, 2015 9:31 am | Comments

A two-step regimen of experimental vaccines against Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) prompted immune responses in mice and rhesus macaques, report National Institutes of Health scientists who designed the vaccines.

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Low Dose Lithium Limits Side Effects of Common Parkinson's Drug in Mouse Study

July 30, 2015 9:21 am | by Elizabeth Doughman, Editor-in-Chief | Comments

Low dose lithium reduced involuntary motor movements in a mouse model of Parkison's disease (PD), according to a study published online in Brain Research. Involuntary motor movements are a common side effect of the medications used to treat PD.

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Small Genetic Differences Could Mean Life-and-death for Gut Infection

July 29, 2015 10:16 am | Comments

Considering how many microorganisms we ingest each day, our gut has an extensive and well-developed immune system. This defense is involved in acute and chronic gut diseases, but it varies dramatically among people. A persistent question is how our genetic make-up affects our gut’s ability to fight infections.

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