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Rat Study Could Lead to Improved Human Memory

November 26, 2014 | by Stuart Wolpert, UCLA | Comments

A study has found that neurons in rats’ brains reacted entirely differently to virtual and real environments. Neurophysicists have found that space-mapping neurons in the brain react differently to virtual reality than they do to real-world environments. These findings could be significant for people who use virtual reality for gaming, military, commercial, scientific, or other purposes.

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Two-Cell Mouse Embryos Discuss Their Future

November 26, 2014 11:21 am | Comments

Bioengineers have discovered that mouse embryos are contemplating their cellular fates in the earliest stages after fertilization when the embryo has only two to four cells, a discovery that could upend the scientific consensus about when embryonic cells begin differentiating into cell types. Their research used single-cell RNA sequencing to look at every gene in the mouse genome.

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Funding Opportunity for Minor Use/Minor Species (MUMS) Development of Drugs to Publish in Early 2015

November 25, 2014 10:22 am | Comments

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will publish a New Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) entitled “Minor Use Minor Species Development of Drugs; Research Project Grant (R01)” in early 2015. The new FOA will replace #RFA-FD-12-003, which is set to expire on January 17, 2015.

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Orexin May be Key for Alzheimer's Prevention

November 25, 2014 10:19 am | by Michael C. Purdy | Comments

A protein that stimulates the brain to awaken from sleep may be a target for preventing Alzheimer’s disease, a study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests.           

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Motor Coordination Issues in Autism Caused by Abnormal Neural Connections

November 25, 2014 10:02 am | Comments

Using a mouse model of autism, scientists from the University of Chicago identified a malfunctioning neural circuit associated with reduced capacity for motor learning. This appears to arise from an inability to eliminate unneeded neural connections in the brain.

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Mitochondrial Fission Provides Possible Treatment for Parkinson's

November 25, 2014 9:33 am | by Harrison Wein, Ph.D. | Comments

Recent studies have linked dysfunctional mitochondria as one of the pathways causing neuron death. These organelles convert compounds derived from food into the molecules that cells use for energy. Studies suggest that proteins involved in the dynamics of these organelles may play a role in Parkinson’s disease.

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Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Antioxidants Treat Brain Injuries in Mice

November 24, 2014 11:34 am | Comments

For the first time, researchers transplanted bone marrow stem cells into damaged brain tissue while applying lipoic acid (a potent antioxidant), with the aim of improving neuroregeneration in the tissue. This method of repairing brain damage, which combines cellular treatment with drug therapy, has shown positive results, especially in forming blood vessels in damaged areas of the brains of adult laboratory mice.

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Poor Serotonin Regulation Responsible for Anxiety Disorders

November 24, 2014 11:18 am | Comments

A lot of research has shown that poor regulation of the serotonin system, caused by certain genetic variations, can increase the risk of developing psychiatric illnesses such as autism, depression, or anxiety disorders.      

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Schizophrenia May Be Triggered By Excess Protein

November 24, 2014 10:55 am | by Robin Lally | Comments

A gene associated with schizophrenia plays a role in brain development and may help to explain the biological process of the disease, according to new Rutgers research.               

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New research in an animal model finds that a novel combination therapy, which couples low-dose chemotherapy with an antiangiogenic treatment, resulted in better ovarian cancer survival rates compared with standard therapy.

Antiangiogenic Treatment, Chemotherapy Improves Survival in Ovarian Cancer Model

November 21, 2014 3:42 pm | by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Comments

New research in an animal model finds that a novel combination therapy, which couples low-dose chemotherapy with an antiangiogenic treatment, resulted in better ovarian cancer survival rates compared with standard therapy.       

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An antidepressant commonly prescribed for women with postpartum depression may   restore connections between cells in brain regions that are negatively affected   by chronic stress during pregnancy, new research suggests.

Stress-induced Brain Changes Reversed in Rat Model of Postpartum Depression

November 21, 2014 3:26 pm | by Ohio State University | Comments

An antidepressant commonly prescribed for women with postpartum depression may restore connections between cells in brain regions that are negatively affected by chronic stress during pregnancy, new research suggests.         

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 Scientists have discovered that genes switch off as memories are being formed, allowing for new connections between nerve cells. The discovery could eventually lead to a key for treating conditions such as autism and dementia.

Bee Brains Offer Insights into Human Memory Formation

November 21, 2014 3:07 pm | by University of Queensland | Comments

Scientists have discovered that genes switch off as memories are being formed, allowing for new connections between nerve cells. The discovery could eventually lead to a key for treating conditions such as autism and dementia.       

Researchers working with mice have uncovered a potential clue to polydactyly a birth defect involving extra fingers on the hand or extra toes on the feet. The researchers have found that a mouse version of polydactyly results from a malfunction of the cel

Mouse Study Reveals Potential Clue to Extra Fingers or Toes

November 21, 2014 2:50 pm | by NIH | Comments

Researchers working with mice have uncovered a potential clue to polydactyly a birth defect involving extra fingers on the hand or extra toes on the feet. The researchers have found that a mouse version of polydactyly results from a malfunction of the cellular machinery that processes one of the cell’s internal transportation vehicles.

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Researchers have found that a growth factor can regenerate damaged peripheral   nerves without causing the growth of new blood vessels — making it a unique   candidate to treat nerve damage in areas of the body where the proliferation of   blood vessels w

Damaged Nerves Regenerated without Blood Vessel Growth

November 20, 2014 10:18 am | by Sharon Parmet, University of Illinois at Chicago | Comments

Researchers have found that a growth factor can regenerate damaged peripheral nerves without causing the growth of new blood vessels — making it a unique candidate to treat nerve damage in areas of the body where the proliferation of blood vessels would be a drawback. 

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Looking across evolutionary time and the genomic landscapes of humans and mice, an international group of researchers has found powerful clues to why certain processes and systems in the mouse are so different from those in people. Building on years studi

Mouse Genome Similar and Very Different from Human Genome

November 20, 2014 10:06 am | by NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute | Comments

Looking across evolutionary time and the genomic landscapes of humans and mice, an international group of researchers has found powerful clues to why certain processes and systems in the mouse are so different from those in people. Building on years studies, they have developed a resource that can help scientists better understand how similarities and differences between mice and humans are written in their genomes.

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A new study in mice shows that our natural gut-residing microbes can influence the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood. The findings provide experimental evidence that our indigenous microbes

Gut Microbiota Influences Blood-brain Barrier Permeability

November 20, 2014 9:33 am | by Karolinska Institutet | Comments

A new study in mice shows that our natural gut-residing microbes can influence the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood. The findings provide experimental evidence that our indigenous microbes contribute to the mechanism that closes the blood-brain barrier before birth. 

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