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The microbes living in the guts of males and females react differently to diet, even when the diets are identical, suggesting that therapies designed to improve human health and treat diseases through nutrition might need to be tailored for each sex.

Diet Affects Gut Microbes Differently According to Sex

July 30, 2014 | by Univ. of Texas at Austin | Comments

The microbes living in the guts of males and females react differently to diet, even when the diets are identical, suggesting that therapies designed to improve human health and treat diseases through nutrition might need to be tailored for each sex.

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What’s the difference between you and a rat? The list is unsurprisingly long but now, we can cross a universal human experience — feelings of regret — off of it.

Rats Experience Feelings of Regret

July 29, 2014 1:22 pm | by Fikri Birey, Scientific American | Comments

What’s the difference between you and a rat? The list is unsurprisingly long but now, we can cross a universal human experience — feelings of regret — off of it.                         

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Stimulating one of two dopamine-producing regions in the brain was able to   arouse animals receiving general anesthesia with either isoflurane or   propofol.

Stimulation of Brain Region Restores Consciousness to Animals under General Anesthesia

July 29, 2014 1:14 pm | by Massachusetts General Hospital | Comments

Stimulating one of two dopamine-producing regions in the brain was able to arouse animals receiving general anesthesia with either isoflurane or propofol.                           

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Gamma waves have been associated with higher-level brain function, and disturbances in the patterns have been tied to schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, autism, epilepsy and other disorders. Now, research shows that little known supportive cells in the b

Astrocytes Process Memories in Mice

July 29, 2014 12:55 pm | by Salk Institute | Comments

Gamma waves have been associated with higher-level brain function, and disturbances in the patterns have been tied to schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, autism, epilepsy and other disorders. Now, research shows that little known supportive cells in the brain known as astrocytes may in fact be major players that control these waves.

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Scientists have tested a non-surgical preventative treatment in a mouse model of peripheral vascular disease, and it was associated with increased blood circulation.

Genetic Switch Prevents Peripheral Vascular Disease in Mice

July 29, 2014 12:31 pm | by Univ. of Texas Health Science Center | Comments

Scientists have tested a non-surgical preventative treatment in a mouse model of peripheral vascular disease, and it was associated with increased blood circulation.                        

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Russia’s space agency has re-established communication with its Foton-M4 satellite in Earth’s low orbit, three days after losing contact. The robotic spacecraft contains geckos participating in experiments on how space conditions impact reproduction.

Russian Gecko Sex Satellite Back in Touch

July 28, 2014 1:23 pm | by RT | Comments

Russia’s space agency has re-established communication with its Foton-M4 satellite in Earth’s low orbit, three days after losing contact. The robotic spacecraft contains geckos participating in experiments on how space conditions impact reproduction.

Scientists have discovered how to manipulate and maintain human embryonic stem cells in a “naïve” or base pluripotent state similar to that of mouse ESCs without the use of any reprogramming factors.

Researchers Create 'Naive' Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells

July 28, 2014 1:05 pm | by Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research | Comments

Scientists have discovered how to manipulate and maintain human embryonic stem cells in a “naïve” or base pluripotent state similar to that of mouse ESCs without the use of any reprogramming factors.               

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Researchers have created a mouse model providing the first in vivo evidence that epigenetic alterations alone can cause cancer.

Epigenetic Changes Drive Cancer in Mice

July 28, 2014 12:50 pm | by Baylor College of Medicine | Comments

Cancer has long been thought to be primarily a genetic disease, but in recent decades scientists have come to believe that epigenetic changes also play a role, but direct evidence has been lacking. Now, researchers have created a mouse model providing the first in vivo evidence that epigenetic alterations alone can cause cancer.

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A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in   specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, researchers have found.

Manipulation of Brain Protein in Mice Could Lead to Obesity and Diabetes Drugs

July 28, 2014 12:37 pm | by UT Southwestern Medical Center | Comments

A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, researchers have found.                           

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An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, researchers have shown.

Anti-inflammatory Drug Prevents Neuron Loss in Parkinson's Model

July 28, 2014 12:20 pm | by Emory Univ. | Comments

An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, researchers have shown.                          

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Exposure to light at night, which shuts off nighttime production of the hormone melatonin, renders breast cancer completely resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used breast cancer drug. A study shows that melatonin is vital to the success of tamoxifen in trea

Total Darkness Needed for Breast Cancer Therapy

July 25, 2014 1:08 pm | by Tulane Univ. | Comments

Exposure to light at night, which shuts off nighttime production of the hormone melatonin, renders breast cancer completely resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used breast cancer drug. A study shows that melatonin is vital to the success of tamoxifen in treating breast cancer. 

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Scientists have found that some melanoma cells are particularly fast growing, but not very good at invading the surrounding tissue, while other melanoma cells are the opposite — highly invasive but slow-growing. In a tumor, the faster growing cells "piggy

Piggy-backing Cells Increase Skin Cancer Growth in Zebrafish

July 25, 2014 12:38 pm | by Manchester Cancer Research Centre | Comments

Scientists have found that some melanoma cells are particularly fast growing, but not very good at invading the surrounding tissue, while other melanoma cells are the opposite — highly invasive but slow-growing. In a tumor, the faster growing cells "piggy-back" along with the more invasive cells.

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Neuroscientists have succeeded in providing new insights into how the brain works. Researchers analyzed tissue samples from mice to identify how two specific proteins act upon the brain’s memory center. These molecules, which have similar counterparts in

Protein Couple Controls Information Flow in Mouse Brain's Memory Center

July 25, 2014 12:11 pm | by DZNE - German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | Comments

Neuroscientists have succeeded in providing new insights into how the brain works. Researchers analyzed tissue samples from mice to identify how two specific proteins act upon the brain’s memory center. These molecules, which have similar counterparts in humans, affect the connections between nerve cells and influence the transmission of nerve signals into the hippocampus.

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A research team has pinpointed a surprising mechanism behind neurodegeneration in mice, one that involves a defect in a key component of the cellular machinery that makes proteins, known as transfer RNA or tRNA.

New Mechanism for Neurodegeneration Found in Mice

July 24, 2014 4:40 pm | by Jackson Laboratory | Comments

A research team has pinpointed a surprising mechanism behind neurodegeneration in mice, one that involves a defect in a key component of the cellular machinery that makes proteins, known as transfer RNA or tRNA.           

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Cardiovascular researchers at have successfully used a protein known as MG53 to treat acute and chronic lung cell injury. Additionally, application of this protein proved to prevent lung cell injury.

Protein Therapy Successful Treats Injured Lung Cells in Animal Model

July 24, 2014 2:18 pm | by Ohio State Univ. | Comments

Cardiovascular researchers have successfully used a protein known as MG53 to treat acute and chronic lung cell injury. Additionally, application of this protein proved to prevent lung cell injury.               

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Researchers have shown that in the fly Drosophila melanogaster the protein p53 is activated in certain cells to adapt the metabolic response to nutrient deprivation, thus having a global effect on the organism.

Molecule in Flies Adjusts Energy Use under Starvation Conditions

July 24, 2014 1:57 pm | by IRB Barcelona | Comments

Researchers have shown that in the fly Drosophila melanogaster the protein p53 is activated in certain cells to adapt the metabolic response to nutrient deprivation, thus having a global effect on the organism.           

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