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Researchers are reporting that xenon gas, used in humans for anesthesia and diagnostic imaging, has the potential to be a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other memory-related disorders.

Xenon Exposure Erases Traumatic Memories in Rats

August 28, 2014 | by Jenna Brown, McLean Hospital | Comments

Researchers are reporting that xenon gas, used in humans for anesthesia and diagnostic imaging, has the potential to be a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other memory-related disorders. The investigators used an animal model of PTSD called fear-conditioning to train rats to be afraid of environmental cues that were paired with brief footshocks.

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Why Are Some Things Easier to Learn than Others?

August 28, 2014 3:11 pm | Comments

Learning is easier when it only requires nerve cells to rearrange existing patterns of activity than when the nerve cells have to generate new patterns, a study of monkeys has found.            

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Mouse Study Shows How Movement Affects Hearing

August 28, 2014 2:59 pm | Comments

When we want to listen carefully to someone, the first thing we do is stop talking. The second thing we do is stop moving altogether. This strategy helps us hear better by preventing unwanted sounds generated by our own movements. This interplay between movement and hearing also has a counterpart deep in the brain.

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Junk Food Makes Rats Lose Taste for Balanced Diet

August 28, 2014 2:47 pm | Comments

A diet of junk food not only makes rats fat, but also reduces their appetite for novel foods, a preference that normally drives them to seek a balanced diet, reports a study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Psychology.

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Growth Factor May Provide Treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth

August 28, 2014 2:06 pm | Comments

According to a recent study, the growth factor neuregulin-1 has immense therapeutic potential: rats treated with neuregulin-1 have more myelinated nerve fibers. The symptoms of the disease diminish significantly as a result.     

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NIH to Launch Human Safety Study of Ebola Vaccine Candidate

August 28, 2014 1:38 pm | Comments

Initial human testing of an investigational vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease will begin next week by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIAID/GSK Ebola vaccine candidate is based on a type of chimpanzee cold virus, called chimp adenovirus type 3 (ChAd3).

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Ebola is a rare, but deadly disease that exists as five strains, none of which have approved therapies. One of the most lethal strains is the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Although not the strain currently devastating West Africa, SUDV has caused widespread il

Sudan Ebola Antibody Tested on Mice

August 28, 2014 8:32 am | by American Chemical Society | Comments

Ebola is a rare, but deadly disease that exists as five strains, none of which have approved therapies. One of the most lethal strains is the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Although not the strain currently devastating West Africa, SUDV has caused widespread illness, even as recently as 2012. In a new study, researchers now report a possible therapy that could someday help treat patients infected with SUDV.

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New findings about the biological links between obesity and insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes may also shed light on the connection between obesity and cancer.

Clearer Obesity, Diabetes Link Found in Mice

August 27, 2014 12:32 pm | by Univ. of Texas at Dallas | Comments

New findings about the biological links between obesity and insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes may also shed light on the connection between obesity and cancer.                         

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New evidence puts into doubt the long-standing belief that a deficiency in serotonin — a chemical messenger in the brain — plays a central role in depression. Scientists report that mice lacking the ability to make serotonin in their brains (and thus shou

Mice are Not Depressed over Lack of Serotonin

August 27, 2014 12:17 pm | by American Chemical Society | Comments

New evidence puts into doubt the long-standing belief that a deficiency in serotonin — a chemical messenger in the brain — plays a central role in depression. Scientists report that mice lacking the ability to make serotonin in their brains (and thus should have been “depressed” by conventional wisdom) did not show depression-like symptoms.

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The Japanese laboratory that retracted a paper reporting a potentially major breakthrough in stem cell research say its researchers have not managed to replicate the results.

Japan Lab Unable to Replicate Stem Cell Results

August 27, 2014 12:02 pm | by Elaine Kurtenbach, Associated Press | Comments

The Japanese laboratory that retracted a paper reporting a potentially major breakthrough in stem cell research say its researchers have not managed to replicate the results.                     

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Binge eating, an eating disorder in which a person frequently consumes unusually large amounts of food in a short period of time, affects about 5 to 10 percent of U.S. adults and is more common in women than men. Researchers found that the hormone estroge

Estrogen-based Compound Suppresses Binge Eating in Female Mice

August 27, 2014 11:53 am | by Baylor College of Medicine | Comments

Binge eating, an eating disorder in which a person frequently consumes unusually large amounts of food in a short period of time, affects about 5 to 10 percent of U.S. adults and is more common in women than men. Researchers found that the hormone estrogen can specifically trigger brain serotonin neurons to inhibit binge eating in female mice.

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Researchers have identified a crucial link between high levels of insulin and pathways that lead to obesity, a finding that may have important implications when treating diabetes.

High Insulin Levels Tied to Obesity Pathway in Mice

August 26, 2014 12:30 pm | by UT Southwestern Medical Center | Comments

Researchers have identified a crucial link between high levels of insulin and pathways that lead to obesity, a finding that may have important implications when treating diabetes.                    

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Scientists have known that toxic effects of substances known as endocrine   disrupting chemicals (EDCs), found in both natural and human-made materials,   can pass from one generation to the next, but new research shows that females with ancestral expos

Great Granddaughters of Toxin-exposed Rats Stress More Easily

August 26, 2014 12:19 pm | by Marc Airhart, Univ. of Texas at Austin | Comments

Scientists have known that toxic effects of substances known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), found in both natural and human-made materials, can pass from one generation to the next, but new research shows that females with ancestral exposure to EDC may show especially adverse reactions to stress.

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A virus and a zebrafish are helping scientists map the living brain. Miswiring is believed to cause conditions such as mental retardation, autism, and schizophrenia. In autism, as an example, there may be too many connections in some brain areas and too f

Virus, Zebrafish Enable Scientists to Map the Living Brain

August 26, 2014 12:02 pm | by Toni Baker, Georgia Regents Univ. | Comments

A virus and a zebrafish are helping scientists map the living brain. Miswiring is believed to cause conditions such as mental retardation, autism, and schizophrenia. In autism, as an example, there may be too many connections in some brain areas and too few in others.

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The presence of Clostridia, a common class of gut bacteria, protects against food allergies, a new study in mice finds. By inducing immune responses that prevent food allergens from entering the bloodstream, Clostridia minimize allergen exposure and preve

Gut Bacteria Protects Mice against Food Allergies

August 26, 2014 11:41 am | by Univ. of Chicago Medical Center | Comments

The presence of Clostridia, a common class of gut bacteria, protects against food allergies, a new study in mice finds. By inducing immune responses that prevent food allergens from entering the bloodstream, Clostridia minimize allergen exposure and prevent sensitization — a key step in the development of food allergies. The discovery points toward probiotic therapies for this so-far untreatable condition.

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An international research team reports a novel molecular pathway that causes an aggressive form of medulloblastoma, and suggests repurposing an anti-depressant medication to target the new pathway may help combat one of the most common brain cancers in ch

Repurposing Anti-depressant Medication Targets Medulloblastoma in Mice

August 25, 2014 2:22 pm | by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center | Comments

An international research team reports a novel molecular pathway that causes an aggressive form of medulloblastoma, and suggests repurposing an anti-depressant medication to target the new pathway may help combat one of the most common brain cancers in children.

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